Database Management Basics

Database management is a method for managing the data that a company needs to run its business operations. It involves storing data and distribution to users and applications, modifying it as necessary and monitoring the changes in the data and preventing it from becoming damaged by unexpected failures. It is a part of the informational infrastructure of a business that aids in decision-making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws like the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others came up with the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which allowed massive amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of purposes. From calculating inventory, to aiding complex financial accounting functions and human resource functions.

A database is a set of tables that store data in accordance with a specific pattern, such as one-to many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records and permits cross-references among tables. Each table has a collection of attributes or fields that provide information about data entities. Relational models, which were developed by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are the most well-known database type in the present. This design is based upon normalizing data to make it easier to use. It also makes it easier to update data by avoiding the necessity of changing various databases.

Most DBMSs can support multiple types of databases by providing different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level concerns cost, scalability, as well as other operational issues, like the physical layout of the database. The external level is how the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It could comprise a combination of various external views (based on the different data models) and could also include virtual tables that are computed using generic data to improve performance.

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